Articles, Blog

Behind the News – Series 2019 Ep 21 – English Sub

August 22, 2019

Hey, Amelia Moseley here,
and you’re watching BTN. Here’s what’s coming up. We find out what’s going on
at this year’s Garma Festival, take a closer look at what
you should and shouldn’t flush down the loo, and meet some very cute
endangered tortoises. But first up today to Arnhem Land, where there was a big event
over the weekend called Garma. It’s a massive celebration of Yolngu
and other Indigenous cultures. Jack’s been up there
and he’s asked some kids to tell us more about it. ALL: Welcome to Garma 2019. Hi, my name is
Siena Mayutu Wurmarri Stubbs and I’m from Yirrkala in
North East Arnhem Land, Australia. Hi, I’m Shakia and I’m from
St Columban’s College, Caboolture. Hey, I’m Emily and I’m from Cairns. (SPEAKS OWN LANGUAGE) My name is Jaye Raymond and
I’m from Warruwi, Goulburn Island. Hi, I’m Nick and I come from Sydney. Garma is a festival
that brings people together as one. The Garma Festival
started 21 years ago. Back then it was small. Today thousands of people
come to share their stories and hear some of our own. It’s held at a site called Gulkula, where Ganbulabula threw his yidaki
into the waters at Wanuwuj. Every day there’s a Buungul
and I dance with my family. There are other things too,
like an art gallery and music. Kids like me come to the Youth Forum
to see what they’re up to. We go around to
all the different groups and we do all different things
from making rockets to drumming. Oh, we were just singing songs
in, like, the local language. It was, like, something…like, something that was really fun
to try out. Well, we’ve been writing down
our ideas on, like, what’s… ..we think’s, like, wrong and what should be, like,
changed in Australia. It comes back to the whole…
that we’re all youth. And then, like, you know,
we’re the leaders of tomorrow, but we’re never being heard. ‘Cause, you know, they’re like,
oh, we’re just children and, you know, you, like…
Your silly little ideas. But we have so much to say. Like, we’ve probably gone
through, like, a whole page of just ideas and questions
that we want answered… ..and stuff we want changed and just to be taken seriously,
you know? It gives everyone…other people
that are here an insight into, like,
a different life. I think it’s important
’cause it kind of, um…, connects everyone together and there’s not such a, like,
separation between, like, Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. And I think it’s important
to have that connection because, like, at the end of the day that’s just what we have to do
as a country. I hope you learned something
about Garma. See you next year. Nhama Yalala. Thanks, guys. Now, as you can see,
Garma is a lot of fun, but it’s also about discussing
serious issues that affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. And this year one of the big
topics of conversation was constitutional recognition. Let’s find out what that means and why some Aussies think
it’s really important. JACK: As the sun begins to set, the voices of the Yolngu song men can be heard throughout Garma… ..summoning everyone to the Buungul. It’s a ceremonial dance
that has been performed here at Gulkula
for thousands of years celebrating the connection
Yolngu people have to the land, just like all of Australia’s
Indigenous cultures. It’s a connection that many
want to see recognised and protected in Australia’s Constitution. (CHANTING) What’s the Constitution, you ask? Well, it just so happens
I have a copy right here. OK, so it doesn’t look like much,
but it’s pretty important. It’s kind of like
our nation’s rulebook – it sets out how the government
is set up and how laws are allowed
to be made and enforced. It was written
more than a century ago, as leaders of the colonies were
preparing to make Australia a nation. It was the first time in the world a country’s constitution
was decided by a vote, although at the time not everyone
had the right to vote. Back then not all Australians
were treated the same. Despite the fact that Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people had lived here
for more than 60,000 years, that wasn’t mentioned
in the new constitution. It also contains several sections that discriminated
against Indigenous people, including a line that said
they weren’t to be counted with other Australian citizens. And ever since then, many people have fought
to change the Constitution. But changing the Constitution
isn’t easy. You have to have a referendum. That’s a big national vote. And in order for a change
to get passed, more than half of the population and more than half
of the states and territories have to vote yes to the changes,
which is a lot harder than it sounds. Only 8 out of the 44 that we’ve had
have been successful. The most successful referendum
in Australia’s history was in 1967, when 90% of Aussies voted
to make sure Indigenous people were counted
as Australian citizens. The ’67 referendum was seen as
a huge win for all the Australians, but for many people
it was just the beginning. For a long time now
there’s been a push for more changes to be made to the Constitution. For starters,
many people want a section recognising Aboriginal
and Torres Strait Islander people as Australia’s First Peoples. There have also been calls to add
a section to the Constitution that would create a special group
in Federal Parliament to give Indigenous people
a louder voice in the future. This group would advise
the government on any laws and policies
that affect Indigenous people. Some people also want to remove
a line that lets the government make laws that apply
to different races. Not everyone agrees on which changes
should happen or whether they should
happen at all. Some say changing the Constitution
would cost too much money and that it wouldn’t change the past or the lives
of Indigenous Aussies today. But others say it’s a necessary step
towards reconciliation. Australia’s Prime Minister,
Scott Morrison, says it’s something
he wants to see happen and he wants to bring it to a vote
in the next three years. And many people here are hoping
they’ll finally get to see their connection
to their land recognised in Australia’s most important
legal document. It was in 1999, when Australians
voted not to become a republic. ALL: You’re watching BTN! First to some sad news from the US,
where there were two mass shootings over the weekend in Texas and Ohio. In both cases police officers
were really quick to respond and saved many lives. Locals have been doing
what they can to help, including donating blood
to help the injured. It’s sparked debate
about US gun laws again. Many say this sort of thing
happens too often in the US and tighter gun controls
might help to stop the violence. Remember, if you’re feeling sad
or worried about that news, you can always head to
BTN’s Upsetting News page for some advice and support. To some happier news now, the finalists of this year’s
Sleek Geeks Science Eureka Prize have been announced. It’s an annual competition
asking kids to make entertaining videos
on a scientific topic. Scientists hope to be able to use
Einstein’s E=MC2 to convert them into energy. There’s all this energy lying around
in the mass of these neutrinos and although they’re not
very massive… This year’s finalists
got super creative, coming up with topics like how
climate change affects polar bears, micro plastics,
and this burning question. Can we bring dinosaurs back to life
like in Jurassic Park? Spoiler alert,
Finn’s conclusion was…probably not. Winners will be announced
at the end of the month. And I know this looks
like something out of Iron Man, but I promise you this is real life. Franky Zapata, a French inventor, has successfully crossed
the English Channel on a hoverboard after a failed attempt back in July. He invented this crazy jet powered
device dubbed the Flyboard Air, which is powered by five jet engines,
so it goes pretty fast. In fact, he made the 35K journey
in just over 20 minutes, reaching speeds of
up to 170K an hour. You might have heard
that Aussie swimmer Shayna Jack is in a lot of trouble after a banned
drug was found in her system. She says she’s not a cheat and suggested it might have come
from a contaminated batch of sports supplements. It sparked a lot of debate
and has some experts warning that supplements can be risky. Take a look. If you’re like me, you might have dreamed
of being a sporting great like Serena Williams, Lionel Messi or LeBron James. That was a weird dream. But you might also have realised
that being a star athlete, or any athlete, or just someone
who gets off the couch, really, is hard work. You can see why people
might look for something to give them that extra edge. Oh. I’m talking about supplements. They’re everywhere and come
in lots of different forms, like protein powders, bars,
tablets and even vitamins, and many claim to do
all sorts of things, like helping people perform better, build muscle,
recover after a big workout or just add extra nutrients to their diets. Supplements are legal and most of the time they’re safe
for fully-grown adults to take. But if you’re
a professional athlete, well, it can be a different story. Recently Aussie swimmer Shayna Jack admitted to testing positive
to a banned substance. It’s called Ligandrol. It was developed to help people with bone conditions
like osteoporosis, but it can also help to grow muscle. Ligandrol is on a big list of drugs and other substances
with very long names that have been banned by professional
sports authorities around the world because they can give athletes
an unfair advantage. And if a sportsperson
is caught using them, they can get in big trouble. The thing is Jack says
she doesn’t know how Ligandrol got into her system. She suggested it might have been
a contaminated batch of supplements. Remember those? Yeah. You see, most of the time, taking
supplements isn’t against the rules, but sometimes small amounts
of banned substances can be found in them and experts say
you can’t always trust the label. In fact, supplements
are one of the biggest causes of failed doping tests in Australia. According to the Australian
Sports Anti-Doping Authority, they lead to one athlete
testing positive every month. It’s why sporting bodies like ASADA
say it’s best for athletes to just avoid supplements altogether. But what about us
not quite Olympic level but still very promising
amateur athletes? While some people say they do feel
the benefits of taking supplements, there are certain types
that aren’t safe to take, especially if you’re a kid. And there are others that are just,
well, a waste of money. Experts say unless your doctor
tells you otherwise, you’re much better off getting
the nutrients and energy you need through food. Like, instead of gulping
on a protein shake, you could just have an egg
for breakfast. So unfortunately it looks like there’s no legit short cut
to sporting glory. (WHISPERS) So good,
I’m so good at basketball. Steve Smith has been dominating
the headlines in the first Test of the Ashes. It was the former Aussie captain’s
first Test match after his year-long ban for
ball tampering. And he stepped onto the pitch
to some boos from the crowd. But many were cheering as he made
a century on the first day at Edgbaston. If that wasn’t enough,
he did it again over the weekend with a knock of 142. It’s kind of a dream comeback
in a way, to be able to score two hundreds in a
match in the first Ashes Test match. It’s something I’ve never done in any
form of cricket before in my life, so it’s incredibly special. Meanwhile, the Aussie women’s team
are back home and still celebrating
their Ashes victory. They were nearly undefeated
in the series, which includes a test as well as
ODIs and T20s, with Ellyse Perry a standout. England ruined their clean sweep
with a win in the final T20 but it wasn’t enough to dampen
the Aussie spirits. # ..the green and the gold # We are the courageous,
mighty and bold # We’ve got what it takes to win. # Nick Kyrgios has won his second
ATP tour title of the year, beating Daniil Medvedev
in straight sets. He says he’s really pleased
with the result. This week means a lot. I mean,
obviously it’s great to get the win but, you know, I’ve proved to myself
and a lot of people that have backed me that I still
have it and can still produce at the highest level. Normally golf isn’t
the fastest-pace sport. That is unless you’re talking about
speed golf. These international pro golfers
tried to beat the record for the fastest hole of golf
by an individual. As you can see, that involves
some serious sprinting. I can’t feel my arms! After a few failed attempts and one disqualification… ADJUDICATOR: So it’s
a disqualified attempt. Oh. ..Belgian Thomas Detry
finally did it. Knock it in! Knock it in! The record to beat was
one minute 33 seconds. You achieved a time of… minute… ..29 seconds! Congratulations! And you’re watching BTN! Whoo! Now to South Australia, where there’s been some talk about
what goes down the toilet. The organisation in charge
of the state’s water has launched a campaign to try to discourage
people from flushing stuff that shouldn’t be flushed. Get ready to be a little grossed out as Olivia shows you
what that stuff is. OLIVIA: Let’s play a game called… Family pets, little brothers, Mum’s glasses, your homework and anything else that isn’t, well, you know… # What goes in the loo # Paper, pee or poo # Your loo will thank you
and our sewers too # If it ain’t the three Ps,
pop it in the bin please # And remember,
just paper, pee or poo. # Yep, paper, pee and poo. Obvious, right? Well, apparently, a lot of people
are flushing things they shouldn’t, which has led to SA Water releasing
that catchy little tune back there, as well as a bunch of
really gross photos showing really gross stuff that’s
been fished out of drains and sewers. Eugh! OK, I’m gonna let you guys in on
a little secret here – I’m not good with gross stuff
and this is super gross. But, apparently, I have to go
and investigate. You’ll be fine, Liv. OK, so here I am at
Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Works and that’s where all of the stuff
that you flush down the loo comes. I’m here with Anna from SA Water
and the smell is kind of bad but it’s not too bad. It’s OK, isn’t it, Olivia? You can kind of get used to it after
a couple of minutes, I think. And I think part of the reason
for that is that actually only less than 1% of what’s
come through the wastewater treatment plant
is actually poo. So the rest of it is water
or some form of liquid. Thanks to some
very clever engineering, not much of this waste
is actually wasted. The water is cleaned
and sent out to farmers and the solids
are turned into compost. But first, workers have to
remove stuff that should never have been sent here
in the first place. Things like toys, mobile phones
and driver’s licenses. There are some things
that it’s like, “How did that get through there?” What’s the weirdest thing
you’ve ever heard of or seen? Oh, there are a few actually. There’s the 200m length of rope that was flushed
all the way through. But my personal favourite
is the rubber chicken. I mean, really, how do you get a
rubber chicken down a sewer network? (CHICKEN SQUAWKS) OK, that’s weird but there’s other stuff that people
are flushing or pouring down the drain,
which is causing big problems – not just here at the treatment plant
but also in the pipes that send the waste here. Things like nappies,
sanitary products, cooking oils and wet wipes, including so-called flushable wipes. Anna says, unlike toilet paper,
flushable wipes don’t break down and when they meet fats and oils,
they can form… It’s like a conglomerate of fats
and greases that have been caught in one area. So it just gets bigger and bigger
and bigger, like a nasty iceberg. Eugh! This is a fat bug
that was found in the UK. And while nothing this big
has been found in Australia…yet, we are spending millions of dollars
a year unclogging clogged pipes – a job that often has to be done
by hand and a job that can be avoided
if people think before they flush. We need to really take care
of our network. It actually keeps us all safe
and healthy. Don’t put your fats down there. Don’t put your wet wipes down there. Don’t put your pads and tampons
down there. Or your rubber chickens,
or any of that other weird stuff. Honestly, people! Did you know… There are many places in the world
where the plumbing is too narrow to cope with paper, so you’re
expected to put it in a bin instead. And if you have any more questions
about the three Ps or fatbergs, you can ask me live on Friday. Can’t wait. After that last story we thought
Liv deserved to look at something cute! So she went to Adelaide Zoo to meet
some completely adorable tortoises, that were rescued from poachers
overseas. Check it out. OLIVIA: These little guys love
moving slow, having a snack and being splashed with a bit of
water apparently. I’m not even kidding, they raise their shells like that
when they’re happy. How cute! These are radiated tortoises,
a species from Madagascar. The reason they have the name
radiated tortoises is the yellow stripes that radiate
from the centre of what is called their scutes or
their shells on top of their shell. While they’re looking happy and
healthy here at the Adelaide Zoo, getting here hasn’t been
an easy journey. Last year, they were rescued from
wildlife traffickers in Hong Kong. Unfortunately for these little guys, radiated tortoises are targeted
by poachers for a whole bunch of reasons. One of them is that amazing shell, which makes them sought after
as pets or as ornaments. And some people even catch them
for their meat. It’s part of the reason the species
is now critically endangered. This rapid decline of a population
is probably the greatest threat and the most rapid decline
facing any living species on the planet today. Here at the Adelaide Zoo, keepers are looking after 24
of the little critters. They hope that having them
on display here will help raise awareness of
the trouble the species is facing. Based on their current decline rate, it’s thought that within 20 years
this is a species that may become extinct
in its natural habitat. With that in mind,
the populations that are in zoos become even more important, to make sure this species is present
going forward into the future. Experts say unfortunately
these tortoises aren’t alone. There are many species
that are being put at risk because of
the illegal wildlife trade. Whether they’re hunted for
their skins or their bones or tusks
or traded as pets. It’s a problem that governments, zoos
and other organizations are trying to tackle. And they say we can help too
by making sure we don’t buy animals or animal products that
could have been traded illegally. So in terms of what you guys can do
to try and prevent and slow the rate of trafficking, if for example
you’re looking to get a new pet at home, you want to make sure
that where you get your pet from, that it’s a reputable source. Within Australia as well, as we want to make sure
that our native animals aren’t illegally harvested
from their habitat. So if you get a pet, make sure
you know where it’s come from. Because, while these guys
are awfully cute to look at, we need to make sure that they don’t
disappear from the wild. Oh, too adorable! Well, that’s it for today’s show but we’ll be back with more
next week. And if you miss us in the meantime,
you can just head to our website for more news stories and videos. You can also check out BTN Newsbreak
every weeknight on ABC ME. And if you’re 13 or over, you can
subscribe to our YouTube channel, so you never have to miss a thing. Have a really lovely week
and I’ll see you soon. Bye! Captions by Red Bee Media Copyright Australian
Broadcasting Corporation

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