Articles, Blog

Enzymes (Updated)

November 6, 2019


Captions are on! Click CC at bottom right to turn off. Follow us on Twitter (@AmoebaSisters)and Facebook! Is it odd to have a favorite protein? Well…I don’t think so. Probably because my favorite protein happens
to remind me of one of my favorite childhood games. Pac-Man. If you haven’t played Pac-Man before then
chances are…we are much, much older than you. But now you can play it on Google- just Google
Pac-Man—it’s a Google Doodle! Anyway, I digress. See in Pac-Man, you have this little character. It goes around, finds these pebbles, and the
pebbles fit right into it. Well a lot of illustrations that you will
find of enzymes happen to look, to us, a lot like Pac-Man. I remember P for pac-man and p for protein. Most enzymes are proteins. In the game we mentioned these little pebbles
that Pac-Man goes after. Well enzymes have a specifically shaped area,
called an active site, where items can bind, called substrates. It’s very specific binding because the active
site is specifically shaped for the substrate that binds there. Very specific. So what happens when substrates bind an enzyme? Well usually the substrate is held there with
weak bonds because it’s not going to stay there forever. Something called induced fit will happen which
means the active site can change its shape even more to bind that substrate perfectly. Like…an enzyme-substrate hug. The enzyme can either build up or break down
the substrates that specifically bind to it, and we call the resulting item the product. An enzyme has the ability to really speed
up reactions. Reactions that technically could happen on
their own …but with the help of enzymes, they can be sped up to make processes effective
for life. Let me give you a great real life example. The enzyme lactase. Another really cool thing about enzymes is
that they often end in -ase like lactase. Many sugars, on the other hand, end in -ose
and lactose is an example of a sugar. Lactose is a disaccharide meaning it contains
two sugar molecules bound together. We don’t actually digest it so well in that
form. It’s big. The enzyme lactase has the ability to break
lactose into smaller parts that our body can digest, and this is a lot better option than
waiting for a chemical reaction with lactose to happen spontaneously. With lactase enzyme, lactose can be broken
down quickly and digested. Now there are some people that do not produce
enough lactase enzymes. They can be what we call lactose intolerant
which means that consuming foods that have lactose, milk sugar, in them can make them
sick. They can’t break the lactose down efficiently
without lactase enzymes. Now in that example, one thing to point out—lactase,
the enzyme, can break down a lot of lactose, the substrate. The lactase doesn’t get used up in the reaction. It’s still there. We call enzymes a catalyst because they can
be used over and over in the reaction. By the way, your digestive system uses all
kinds of enzymes. You have lipase that breaks down lipids- which
are fats. You have amylase which breaks down starch. You have protease which breaks down proteins. So as you can see, the digestive system is
very involved with enzymes. Another thing to point out is that enzymes
don’t always work alone. Sometimes they get some help. Some often underappreciated but essential
little helpers are called cofactors and coenzymes. They may bind to the substrate or to the active
site. They help the enzyme do its job of building
up or breaking down substrates into products. Now you didn’t forget our Pac-Man analogy
yet right? In the game Pac-Man, there are these ghosts. And when they touch Pac-Man, it makes this
sound…it’s like…ner ner ner ner. The Pac-Man’s shape gets all distorted in
the process. So what does this have to do with enzymes? No, there aren’t ghosts around. But enzymes do have certain ideal conditions
that they like. For example, an enzyme that is in your stomach
would have an ideal pH that is very acidic because the environment in your stomach is
very acidic. Different enzymes have different ideal pH
and temperature ranges. If an environment changes out of an enzyme’s
ideal pH or temperature range, then something that reminds me a lot of that horrible sound
I tried to make can happen. The enzyme becomes…denatured! That means its shape becomes distorted- it
can no longer bind to its substrate. It can no longer work correctly. It is…finished. Well….that’s a dramatic end to enzymes. Keep in mind that if you have an interest
in this topic, many medical researchers have a large focus on enzymes. Enzymes regulate a lot of body processes,
and many diseases can involve specific enzyme production…or the lack of it. Well that’s it for the Amoeba Sisters and
we remind you to stay curious!

74 Comments

  • Reply German Panzerwurfmine September 6, 2019 at 2:30 am

    I thought I was going to bomb the test, but this video really diffused the situation.

  • Reply shiyakiisa S. September 6, 2019 at 5:51 pm

    omg i love how over dramatic this is. This is what can makes bio fun.

  • Reply Ryn Boyde September 10, 2019 at 5:21 pm

    2019

  • Reply Ebtasimy إبتسمي September 10, 2019 at 5:39 pm

    Where is the translation in Arabic 😫

  • Reply Buzz Off September 11, 2019 at 8:05 am

    Well thats a dramatic end in enzymes

    Yeah right hahaha

  • Reply _ RuntyBeatle36 _ September 11, 2019 at 10:19 pm

    Proteins break down proteins? Canallbism?

  • Reply Nylex TTV September 12, 2019 at 12:15 am

  • Reply Shaunt Kederian September 13, 2019 at 2:43 am

    Can you be my gen bio 1 and 2 teachers

  • Reply Tanner L September 13, 2019 at 4:39 pm

    Bruh in biology rn

  • Reply JORGE BARRERO September 14, 2019 at 3:22 am

    This channel is the BEST!! Really what youtube was meant for.

  • Reply Nasri Abdi September 16, 2019 at 11:36 am

    wish me luck for the test.

  • Reply Omelette OMG September 16, 2019 at 11:49 am

    ah yes, Lock And Key hypothesis and Induced Fit Hypothesis

  • Reply aja September 16, 2019 at 1:55 pm

    Watching everything in 1.75x to pass an exam ughhhh

  • Reply Justice Netshishivhe September 18, 2019 at 7:29 am

    My beloved sisters❤️

  • Reply Gerald Grant September 18, 2019 at 4:57 pm

    biology class be like:

  • Reply Josh Woods September 19, 2019 at 12:57 am

    I liked and subscribed because they teach way better than my biology Teacher

  • Reply Kio HD September 22, 2019 at 4:50 pm

    ugh anyone else from highschool bio?

  • Reply Ms. Silhouette September 23, 2019 at 10:59 am

    We will have a moving exam in our General Biology class lol

  • Reply Caitlin Mee September 23, 2019 at 12:47 pm

    Pre Ap Bio is gonna be the death of me

  • Reply Devin Wanda September 23, 2019 at 4:58 pm

    Chase dogged the boys

  • Reply Zelda Fogle September 23, 2019 at 11:47 pm

    This video inspired me to go play pac man and set aside my bio homework for the day 🙂

  • Reply vas yuck September 25, 2019 at 2:43 pm

    i havent called my dad in a month i should call him but im watch the amina sister

  • Reply Papi Burrito 10 September 25, 2019 at 9:59 pm

    Who else is here after the logan vs ksi 2 fight was announced?

  • Reply Xander Winter September 26, 2019 at 7:15 pm

    bruh

  • Reply Kkqleb - September 30, 2019 at 11:54 pm

    Hello Mrs. Moreaux’s Bio Honors Class of 2019…

  • Reply Travis October 1, 2019 at 5:36 pm

    i love it

  • Reply Malina Shrestha October 2, 2019 at 9:47 pm

    Thank you so much for the video! It helped a lot 🥰🥰🥰

  • Reply Kirby Griffin October 3, 2019 at 4:18 pm

    I like cheese

  • Reply Caden Barrios October 3, 2019 at 6:02 pm

    Hello Mrs Jeandron’s Biology class😂😂😂

  • Reply Marshall Blackburn October 4, 2019 at 2:28 am

    Imagine being in ms. Hanusa’s class

  • Reply Jouri 7 October 5, 2019 at 9:23 pm

    اكو عرب

  • Reply Roger Kreil October 7, 2019 at 6:00 pm

    Interesting….

  • Reply Negash Ali October 8, 2019 at 8:57 pm

    Yeah

  • Reply Sedona Sedona October 10, 2019 at 9:24 am

    This was so helpful and funny! It was perfect thanks amoeba sisters!

  • Reply Sedona Sedona October 10, 2019 at 9:31 am

    This was so helpful and funny! It was perfect thanks amoeba sisters!

  • Reply Luis Albarran October 10, 2019 at 4:43 pm

    Lil pump

  • Reply Jack Kelly October 10, 2019 at 4:52 pm

    when i can't sleep at night i watch this and cry

  • Reply Nazier Medina October 10, 2019 at 5:13 pm

    Who else hear for biology class 🖕🏻🖕🏻🖕🏻🖕🏻🖕🏽🖕🏽

  • Reply 27k October 10, 2019 at 10:09 pm

    bruh

  • Reply Julian Loa October 11, 2019 at 7:10 pm

    lameeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

  • Reply Karl Broomfield October 11, 2019 at 7:29 pm

    I HEAT IT

  • Reply John Sagurit October 14, 2019 at 5:54 am

    Why cant all professors explain stuff like this so smooth and clearly lol

  • Reply Jonathan Jimenez October 14, 2019 at 4:45 pm

    yo whats up XD

  • Reply Wiz Chanell October 14, 2019 at 6:56 pm

    this was so helpful especially with the packman reference omggg

  • Reply Manuel Carrillo October 14, 2019 at 7:24 pm

    And i OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP

  • Reply Bryan Esparza October 14, 2019 at 7:24 pm

    TROKIANDO CUHHHHHHHHHHH

  • Reply StormSheep 17 October 15, 2019 at 11:53 pm

    Instead of teaching the class about enzymes my bio teachers played this video.

  • Reply E R October 16, 2019 at 4:05 am

    face reveal????

  • Reply Evan Caron October 17, 2019 at 12:06 pm

    Pebbles?

    Ya'll mean pellets , riiiiight?

  • Reply Luke Casteen October 17, 2019 at 1:46 pm

    ahhahha very nice👌

  • Reply Joshua Charles October 17, 2019 at 6:13 pm

    last period baby

  • Reply Stephen Thompson October 19, 2019 at 8:34 pm

    Lol Pac-Man is back

  • Reply Fatima Zahra October 20, 2019 at 1:48 pm

    1:06 phineas is that you ?

  • Reply Ekastevia Julip October 21, 2019 at 3:26 am

    oh my god, i love amoeba sisters. can you upload more detail video about biology. thanks sisters

  • Reply Sam Hammers October 21, 2019 at 7:20 pm

    ~~~~~

  • Reply Mr.gamerwatch October 21, 2019 at 11:10 pm

    meee

  • Reply Ryley M. October 21, 2019 at 11:25 pm

    we all know that we are watching this because of middle and high school

  • Reply Anthony Gossett October 22, 2019 at 3:45 pm

    my teacher is watching me comment this

  • Reply Epicbattlehotel 2401 October 22, 2019 at 8:39 pm

    Watched this for High School Biology homework. Great video 😀

  • Reply Arieanna Reyes October 23, 2019 at 1:08 am

    I use this Chanel for my AP bio class a LOT. I was sad when I found out you guys don’t have a video on ATP and ADP because I am learning it in class rn.

  • Reply TubeDeviant October 23, 2019 at 8:14 am

    Is it ok to ask my crush to be the enzyme to my substrate..!?!?

  • Reply m October 24, 2019 at 1:00 am

    When the biology teacher just wants a few mins of freedom and play this vid of anyone of these vids

  • Reply Juan Guillermo Mosquera October 24, 2019 at 3:42 pm

    vuen bideo

  • Reply happycat lemon October 27, 2019 at 3:00 am

    Biology's hard am gonna cry

  • Reply Reeme Char October 27, 2019 at 3:02 pm

    The only reason I'm passing biology exam tomorrow

  • Reply Hania Imran October 29, 2019 at 12:32 pm

    Amoeba Sisters how is it exactly the same shape and the enzyme can be used again for another substrate so does that mean that all substrates are the same shape that go into the enzyme ?

  • Reply fatima aldhohoori October 29, 2019 at 2:36 pm

    Who is here because of biology ? Mehhhhhh lol

  • Reply Scarlett Choi October 29, 2019 at 10:11 pm

    9th grade biology class gang gang

  • Reply Kobi Da King October 30, 2019 at 10:44 pm

    2019 Biology High School wya??

  • Reply Mama Mumy November 1, 2019 at 8:38 pm

    Okay I'm Maria,Eduardo baby you shouldn't have changed

  • Reply dumbcreaknuller November 4, 2019 at 12:42 pm

    what nobody seem to realize is what causes the enzymes to moved and what drives the binding process of complex molecules. i think i have figured out what actually happens. the secret as simple as to why we can read eeg signals from your skin. complex molecules produces voltages that gives other smaller molecules a lift by generating voltage induced transport. what seem impossible is when certain molecules can cut cromosomes in half like scissors. this would be impossible to understand as molecules propellig themseves without an engine to do so. the solution is that they themselves do not need an a engine but instead needs a voltage produced by another molecule that create a wave that this molecule can ride along. the complexity is more complex than this. if we think interference pattern of voltages, it all makes sense that the behavior of the molecules behave acordingly to a programming of the medium in such a way that there is a interference pattern of voltage potentials in the medium that propel around the individual molecules from source to destinations. what creates the pattern is signal or transmission molecules that is like holoemitters on the holodeck on startrek creating the hologram but creats a interference pattern of voltages instead. i do not try to prove anything here, i just got some brain storming goin on in my head that revealed this to me based on my currently vast knowlege in about anything even if my knowlege is far from perfect or errornous. this explains the holy grail of biology and would solve everything. the voltages are tiny like the ones on your skin. the waveform is like a sound wave modulating both amplitude and frequency as low frequency interactions. if you think my comment is useful, just make it open to suggestions to anyone you like, if not just ignore it.

  • Reply FAVOUR NKESEH YEMNJANG November 4, 2019 at 1:53 pm

    i love this topic so much

  • Reply Elite a20 November 4, 2019 at 3:28 pm

    All enzymes gangsta till they become denatured

  • Reply Isaiah Probst November 4, 2019 at 4:06 pm

    made us watch it in school

  • Reply Kübra Demir November 5, 2019 at 6:43 am

    Thank you , from Turkey .

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