NARRATOR>>Liberia. A Republic colonized by
freed American slaves and founded on the principles of U.S. democracy. A country that promised
to lead a continent out of darkness, until a 14-year civil war turned out the lights.
The conflict, which began in 1989, left more than 200,000 dead, the country in economic
ruin and its infrastructure devastated. HOMER>>I started off years ago as a Peace
Corps volunteer to Liberia, an agricultural volunteer in fact. Monrovia, obviously was
a far more vibrant city during the time I was a volunteer. This would have been from
’82 to ’84 in Liberia. Full of life, full of music, lots of places to go and see. WILLS>>Liberia could probably be maybe described
as an emerging economy at that time, in the sense that, you know, they had a relatively
thriving economy…with some of the major international tire companies operating plantations
there, such as Firestone. Prior to the War, Liberia’s electricity capacity,
that is public electricity capacity provided by the Liberia Electricity Corporation, was
in the range of 128 MW. Half of it represented by hydropower, a 64MW
Mt. Coffee hydropower project and the rest, the thermal components, they had at the time
gas turbines and heavy fuel oil reciprocating engines that made up the other 60MW and that
was to support the electricity system during the dry season when Mt. Coffee couldn’t. MOHAMMED>>In fact, it was much better than
many others in the region. We had a utility with a customer base of close to about 30,000
customers. We had our supplies, our grid, extending to almost all major towns in the
country. MAYAH>>When the utility was on, of course,
you could get, it was relatively cheap in those days. You could get electricity for
about 11 cents. So people used electricity to cook and so forth. DASIC>>After the war, there is only one sentence:
There is no system. TAYLOR>>Will Taylor step down on Monday?
Yes. NARRATOR>>President Charles Taylor who had
led the rebel forces during the Liberian conflict and supported atrocities in Sierra Leone’s
civil war, was forced to resign in 2003. A peace agreement was signed and ignored as
an interim government took control of Liberia. The government was monitored and protected
by the United Nations, but crime was rampant as a desperate population turned to theft
and looting to survive. WILLS>>By 2005 when MHI went there to assist
the World Bank, there was no generation. The bulk of the transmission distribution system
had been scrapped. Looted. Sold for scrap metal—aluminum, copper, steel, it was all
gone. And subsequent to that, after 2005, the final looting of the Mt. Coffee hydro
power plant took place and there isn’t a scrap of metal left there, either. If you were at Mt. Coffee and you looked down
in the turbine pits, you will actually see the bottom half of the turbine runner, the
blades. The top half that was above the water was actually cut off with cutting torches.
So all this scrap metal ends up in shipping containers and then is shipped offshore. A
lot of it was actually, I suppose, scrapped by official decrees and things like that,
in other words it was permitted. But a lot of it was highly illegal. WEYNAND>>When we were there in 2006, a contractor
prepared a background report for us with some of the factual information and data on the
situation in country on energy and electricity, but when I first arrived, I came in the evening
and the airport had some lights on in it from an emergency generator but then driving the
route from the airport to the city was pitch black and a road full of potholes and a number
of security checkpoints that were manned by the UN military. WHITAKER>>Landing in Liberia at Roberts International
in July of 2006 really was instructive from day one about what it was going to be like
to start from zero. WILLS>>And so at the time that the funding
agencies—USAID, the European Union, and others—got very active in 2006, there really
was no electricity system. There was no Liberia Electricity Corporation, even the offices
had been looted. So essentially there was nothing. And we started from zero.
In 1902 Thomas Charles Burns and Irish Draper
known as TC opened Brisbane’s first Department Stall in the Valley. TC Burns was know for
excellent service, innovation and fine produce. 100 years later his genes obviously carried
on through as his great, great grand daughter Jan Power continued the tradition of fine
produce, innovation and style with a launch in 1998 of Jan Powers Farmers Markets. People are realising now they can get it from
the farmers and it last a lot longer than the bigger supermarkets chains. We cut the
middle man out here and the produce is very cheap. Take this celery its $2.50 for a bunch
of celery like this, fresh out of the garden, the roots are on its all fresh. Every Wednesday Morning whilst the city sleeps
Jan Powers Farmers Markets staff usher in an array of farmers, chefs and artisans into
Radcliffe place. Who proudly and excitedly setup there wears,
to provide the best produce in Queensland. Each stall is picked by the Jan Powers Brisbane
Markets Team, to showcase Australia’s finest fresh produce. Foods from many nations, from
paella to pineapples, bagels to baklava, sausages to spices. Loyal customers come from all over
Brisbane for their weekly produce. There are a lot of Farmers here, we fish mungers,
bread makers, come and have a look we all work together as a team here, its a little
family some of the farmers they actually supply me. The Jan Powers Farmers Brisbane Markets Team
works all week to ensure this is the best weekly market in Brisbane and Australia. And we hope this will continue for many years
to come. We invite you to join the good food lovers of Brisbane Markets. Every Wednesday
at Jan Powers Farmers Markets. Iv been coming here every week for 2 years
now, I really like the produce, spray free, really fresh and really beautiful TC Burns would be proud.
Here’s a lamp I made by using an electric fly swatter,
a tube from a compact fluorescent light and a clothes hanger.
It runs on two AA batteries for just under 4 hours.
In this video I’ll show how you can make one too. First, I need just the tube from a CFL.
Here are some that I’ve taken apart. Sometimes you can pry them open
but often you have to cut them open. Be careful not to cut two deeply and damage
anything inside. You’ll either see electronics like this
or just thin wires like this. In either case,
cut the wires so that you leave as long a length as possible
going to the tube. Keep the part with the tube.
Don’t worry, the tube is sealed, so no mercury will get out. Next, I take the fly swatter apart. Here’s the circuit board.
Not all makes of fly swatters are the same as this,
but for many the basic idea is the same. This is the packaging for mine. Here’s the schematic,
and here’s the circuit diagram. The wires going to the meshes are these yellow
and red ones. This diode makes the output DC,
meaning the electrons are allowed to flow in one direction only.
That’s bad for a fluorescent tube since it causes the mercury in the tube to
build up at one end. And this resistor would have been reducing
the current, possibly mainly for during any sparks,
which there won’t be anymore. So I do some desoldering, and soldering. I desolder this end of the resistor
and put a black wire in its place. I also desolder this end of this diode
and put a red wire in its place. I connect up a 5 watt CFL.
There are two wires for each end of the tube, so I make sure to connect to both of them.
Which way it goes doesn’t matter. Turning it on, it works!
I try it with a 13 watt tube that I’d previously soldered wires to.
That also works. The circuit diagram now looks like this. I get out my oscilloscope and turn on the
light. I’ve connected my two probes
such that they’re each measuring one side of the CFL tube
with respect to ground. Each individual trace is too high to fit in
the display, but is still within the safe voltage range
for my scope. When subtracted from each other to show what
the CFL would see, it also doesn’t fit.
The frequency is around 9.259 kilohertz. From past experience
I may be able to adjust the brightness by using different resistance values here,
so I remove the resistor and put in some short wires instead.
I attach a potentiometer those wires so I can adjust the resistance manually.
Running it in darker conditions while adjusting the resistance
I search for when its brightest. That turns out to be around 700 ohms.
I also run it like that for a while to see if any parts get too hot.
None seem to. I find that an old 820 ohm fixed resistor
gives the same light so I solder that in. The switch that came with it has to be held
closed for it to work. So I cut a hole for a new switch
and move the wires from the old one to a new one.
A quick test shows that it works great. Finally I desolder the wires going from the
board to the mesh. After putting the cover back on, it still
works. Next I find that the tube assembly fits nicely
into an old plastic bottle. So I cut the top
and bottom from the bottle and fit them together. I then cut a plastic ring out of some scrap
plastic, until it fits over the bottle parts well.
I next drill some holes in it for attaching to the fly swatter,
as well as one for hanging the whole thing for convenience.
Putting the ring in place, it fits. I hot glue the bottle pieces together.
Notice the two small holes in the side. Then comes putting the bottle pieces on the
ring, with the wires extending inside through the
small holes, and then hot gluing them to the ring.
Then the CFL’s wires are connected to the fly swatter’s wires using
marrettes, and the CFL tube is put in place.
After screwing the cover back on, a final test shows it works. Done! To have some fun with the lamp,
I get out a metal clothes hanger and start cutting it up.
First I make a hook for hanging it. I first try hanging it in my closet.
In the dark it works great. I can also hang it from the headboard of my
bead, and use it as a reading light.
I then use the rest of the clothes hanger wire to make a desk stand.
I use the light to see my way into my office and put it in the desk stand on the desk for
general lighting. And lastly,
one question I’ve gotten a lot is how long it runs for.
To measure that I put in some fresh batteries and put it in this box.
The box has a hole at one end. Inside at the other end is some paper with
writing on it. This hole lets me see in with the camera to
film the light level. The settings on the camera are all set to
manual. I switch on the light,
close the box and start timing it.
For the first 3 hours and 40 minutes it keeps around the same brightness.
But when I check ten minutes later, at 3 hours and 50 minutes,
it’s much dimmer. Then 15 minutes after that it’s no longer
lit. So I get around 3 and 3/4 hours of good light. Well, thanks for watching! See my youtube channel, rimstarorg for more
fun videos like this. That includes one all about this electric
fly swatter. Another explaining how a joule thief circuit
works. And to help for anyone new to electronics,
one on how to read a schematic. And don’t forget to subscribe if you like
these videos, or give a thumbs up,
share with your social media, or leave a question or comment below. See you soon!
We’ve taken six of the world’s
top athletes to find out what it takes to
make a true Olympian… That’s it, come on! ..as we push
their bodies to the max. (ANATOMY OF AN ICE HOCKEY
PLAYER) Ice hockey is a team
game really like no other. They come onto the ice at 100%,
they have to maintain that for the short period
of time they’re on the ice. They need to recover
as rapidly as they can on the bench before
being subbed back on again. So, what ice hockey players
are is incredibly explosive. Add on top of that,
it is a brutal sport… ..where collisions are
continual, where the ability to
be robust to withstand those collisions,
really does make ice hockey something very
special on the Olympic programme. At the Olympic Winter Games
Sochi 2014, Canada won their fourth
consecutive gold medal. Jenn Wakefield is a key
member of their forward line and her high-energy,
high-impact style has made her one of ice hockey’s
biggest names. I think my biggest strengths
would probably be just my size and my weight. I’m one of the heavier
and taller hockey players. When I’m most
effective is when I can push people round and
win battles in the corner. So, you know, I might not look
the best in a bathing suit, but I get
the job done in the winter. We’ve come to
Buckinghamshire New University and its world-renowned
Human Performance Lab. Our team of scientists will
be testing Jenn to the limit, as we find out just
what’s made her one of ice hockey’s
fiercest competitors. Jenn’s physical presence
has made her a star not just of the women’s
game but also a major force in the Swedish men’s league. But what is it that makes
her anatomy so suited to this most demanding of
sports? We’re about to find out. I mean, the typical body shape
of a female ice hockey player is
probably akin to rugby. They have to be fast, they have
to be strong, they have to be powerful, but they also have to withstand
the massive collisions that are occurring
on a continual basis. The Bod Pod calculates
the amount of lean muscle and fat that
the human body is carrying. For a power athlete like Jenn,
it’s a balance between having enough mass to withstand the
intensity of her sport without compromising her speed
and agility on the ice. So, Jenn,
your result would be 22.9%. We play a 36-game schedule, so I feel like it’s more
carb-loading and getting the weight on to play the type of position
I play. Jenn’s body fat percentage
is only marginally higher than individual athletes
like tennis players, where physical presence isn’t such an
advantage and her score of 22.9% puts her firmly
in the top tier of female team sports athletes, leaner still than rugby and
basketball players. So 22.9% body fat really
indicates how robust she needs to be in order to withstand the
pressure of ice hockey itself and maintain performance
throughout the game. (SPEED) Crucially, this is really what
ice hockey is all about, once on ice, you need to
produce maximum power, maximum speed over short
durations, multiple times before coming
off the ice again. So the repeated sprint test
really is ice hockey specific. In a typical match, forwards
like Jenn play in a series of shifts, intense
45-second periods of action, which demand
both explosive power and speed, all generated from
hamstrings, calf muscles, hip flexors and quadriceps. Three, two, one – go! The repeated sprint test is
a series of ten full-throttle, maximum-effort 20m bursts –
with minimal rest in between. OK, good work, Jenn,
and back quickly! These will test Jenn’s
anaerobic ability to the max. Go, go, keep going!
Keep going! Keep going! Ice hockey is a game of
high-intensity, short-burst, maximal efforts
with players skating at speeds of 30km per hour,
and being fast is everything. Big push for this
last one! Ready? Three, two, one – go! Go! Go!
Go! Go on, push! Push! Push! Push!
Great work, Jenn! Brilliant! Her fastest 20m sprint from a
standing start was 3.42 seconds, so that tells us
that she is very, very quick. But the most
extraordinary result of all is what we
call the Fatigue Index, which is basically
how much she slows down over
those ten efforts. And if you take a look at
that, her fastest was 3.42 and she only
slowed to 3.63 seconds, that’s just a drop
of 6% in speed. Now, that really is
outstanding. How do you
feel about those results? Ah, it’s good
I can recover quickly, but I need to get faster. Do you want to go a bit faster? Hopefully I show better on
the ice than I do with running! (SPIRO) The lung function
test is important when we look at elite athletes, because to some extent ice
hockey is actually
about aerobic capacity. On ice, it’s all about speed,
it’s all about power output. But off ice, it’s actually
about being able to recover in order to come back
onto the ice to replicate that high-power output,
high speed. During an ice hockey game,
Jenn will typically participate in 20 shifts,
the high-demand periods of game time,
which will require her to perform multiple
short-burst sprints, withstand heavy collisions,
and employ her technical skills to their best advantage. OK, so I’m going to give
you this nose-clip to wear. Take a deep breath
and then put your mouth around the mouth-piece
and start blowing. Keep blowing,
keep blowing, keep blowing! Oxygen is the fuel Jenn needs to sustain these repeated
efforts and a powerful respiratory
system is essential to get the fuel to where
it’s needed most. Fast. OK, keep blowing,
keep blowing, keep blowing, nearly there. Stop! OK. So Jenn’s results for
the lung function test really are very good. In terms of what’s
called Forced Vital Capacity, which is effectively
the volume of the lung, she is 106%
of what we expect to see. And in terms of function,
she had 117% of what we would normally expect to see, now that is
an outstanding result. That forms the central
pillar of this aerobic capacity that we know is so important
for Jenn during those recovery phases between
her on ice performance. (UP CLOSE) I think the thrill of ice
hockey for me started when I was a kid, just because my
whole family played it. I have 14 cousins, so it was
nice to kind of jump on the pond and, you know, try to be
the best out of my cousins. And we were
a very competitive family. To make the Olympic team in
Sochi was an unimaginable feeling and then, you know,
the way we won the final, coming back, down 2-0
with four minutes left. You realise it’s such an
incredible feeling to win it, not only for your country
but to have your parents there that were
backing you 100%. Jennifer Wakefield! After winning, it’s
such an addictive feeling and you know I’ve dedicated
the next four years of my life to train for Pyeongchang
and, you know, you never know
what’s going to happen, you never know injuries, you
never know if you’re going to have the best year
of your life or the worst year of your life and you
kind of just have to give 100% and to have no regrets
looking back on it and that’s what separates
you from being an Olympian or separates you
from almost making it. (POWER) The vertical jump test
is a very important measure of power output. Now, power is strength
delivered as rapidly as possible, in other words it is
force per unit-time and in ice hockey
that is absolutely key. The explosive energy
Jenn needs to propel her across the ice places huge
demands on many muscle groups, calves, adductors,
glutes and quads. Can she produce the power when
she needs it to stay up with the action during game time? You need to start on the
jump mat with both feet, push yourself upward
and then land – with both feet on the mat.
– OK. By measuring
the force that Jenn applies to the
specially-calibrated mat… Fantastic! ..we can calculate
her vertical jump height, a metric which relates directly to the power she can
generate from her lower body. In ice hockey, with
its reliance on short, intense bursts of speed, it’s
vital that a forward player can call on maximum
power whenever they need it to make those big
plays that can change a game. You’ve got a 43.2! – Yes!
– Yes. 43.2. Perfect, done! You pleased with that? I bet. – You’ve done really well.
– Thank you. Jenn’s vertical jump test
of 43.5cm is exactly what we’d expect to see,
it is above average, it’s an excellent result
and is indicative of the power and critically the speed that
she requires when on ice. (VO2 MAX) The VO2 Max test is our
measure of aerobic capacity, effectively our
aerobic endurance. Now, at first sight, you would
expect an ice hockey player not to require
a massive aerobic capacity, because it is about speed and
power over short periods of time. But the key is they
have to recover, so when they come off ice,
they’ve got a short period of recovery before
coming back on to try and replicate that power
and that speed. And it’s the aerobic capacity which will underpin that
recovery. Jenn’s ability to take in
the maximum amount of oxygen and deliver it to where
it is needed most, is crucial if she’s to be able
to produce peak performance for shift after shift on
the ice. And the VO2 Max
will push her to her limit. OK, let’s go! So we’re up at 130 beats
per minute now, heart rate! In the intensity
of an ice hockey shift, forwards like Jenn are
hitting peak heart rates in excess of 90%
of their maximum. Really got to dig deep now,
let’s see how far we can get. Make sure you keep
going, keep going! Each shift in ice hockey is
a high-intensity workout. Jenn is having
to repeat shift after shift with just a few minutes
off the ice to rest, so she needs serious
powers of endurance. Now let’s find another
gear, keep pushing! And on 262 watts,
come on, Jenn, aim for 280, come on, keep pushing,
come on! Keep that cadence nice
and high, keep going, Keep pushing. Let’s go, let’s go!
Come on! Keep it going. Keep it going. OK, let’s end the test there and take
the mask off for you, and well done, great effort! The VO2 Max test
results for Jenn are good, but the interesting
thing about Jenn is that when she is preparing
for international competition we know her VO2 Max
is in the region of 51.4 – much higher, and of course
that is absolutely crucial when you are playing
multiple matches on consecutive days and it’s
exactly where she needs to be, to be
an elite team game player. Jenn’s performance
in our tests has proved that to be a gold medal-winning
ice hockey player… Go! Go! Go! Go! Keep going!
Keep going! Keep going! ..you really need to be
the complete physical package. Now let’s find another gear!
Keep pushing. Endurance levels
that would match many in the NHL and massive
explosive power, all under-pinned
by an anatomy that can withstand the
punishment of one of Olympic sport’s
most demanding events. Jenn’s results
really are exceptional. For me, it’s her
ability to move fast and sustain
that on repeated occasions are what make her
an Olympic gold medallist and one of the
best players in the world. The thrill of ice hockey for me …it’s complete adrenaline
rush, no situation is ever the same and you never know if it’s
going to be a 1-1 game, heading into overtime,
sudden-death or you’re going to crush
a team 5-0. That’s why it’s super cool
to be able to experience.